Thursday, January 16, 2020

Ethical Lens Essay

Ethical Lens Inventory Results for DESIREE Your preferred lens is: Rights and Responsibility Lens You use your reasoning skills (rationality) to determine your duties as well as the universal rules that each person should follow (autonomy). Your Core Values: Autonomy and Rationality You prioritize the value of autonomy over equality. Your primary concern is protecting individual rights. You believe this is the best way to assure that everyone in the community is treated fairly. You prioritize the value of rationality over sensibility. You believe universal rules exist that apply equally to everyone and that the best results are achieved through consistent application of the universal rules. Your Classical Values: Temperance You value individual balance and restraint in the desire for pleasure as you seek to satisfy your duties. You also know who you are, so you can act with integrity in the exercise of all the virtues. Your Key Phrase: â€Å"I am responsible.† Because you value autonomy and rationality, you tend to assume that your own definitions of what a responsible person should do apply to everyone. Your Definition of ethical behavior: Fulfilling duties You define an ethical person as one who fulfills their duties and does the right thing as an autonomous, fully-responsible adult. For you, this is the fullest expression of fairness and justice. Your Tools for analyzing problems: Reason Using your critical thinking skills is your preferred method for learning and problem-solving. You tend to think through a problem carefully and research options to find the one that will allow you to fulfill your duties. You focus on gathering and analyzing all the available data so you can make a fully informed decision. Your Gift: Self-knowledge Because you are concerned with figuring out your duties, when you are at your best you know yourself – you know both what you are doing and why. Because of this, when you say that you will do something or care for someone, you follow through. You are also able to live in the present, to determine what you need to do at any given moment to fulfill your responsibilities. Your Blind spot: Belief that motive justifies method Because you are so clear about your reasons for acting, you tend to believe that the motive justifies the method. You may unintentionally cause people upset and pain because you are so focused on your good motive. You tend to believe that ethics is a set of universal rules that everyone must follow, just as you do. You follow the rules – everyone should. Your Risk: Being autocratic (bossy) Without self-knowledge, you run the risk of becoming autocratic. You require everyone to do things your way in order to measure up ethically. You tend not to consider other interpretations of the facts or listen to other approaches once you have made up your mind. Your Temptation: Excuses If you are not paying attention, you can be tempted to excuse yourself from following the rules. You insist that you really are being true to your core values, even when you are not. You’ll convince yourself that the rules were meant for other people or that the action you want to take really does meet your responsibilities – even though your â€Å"Responsible Self† tells you otherwise. Your Vice: Becoming judgmental and legalistic Without self-knowledge, you can become overly rigid in your expectations, leading to legalism as you obsess over minute details. You will also become judgmental and when others do not fulfill (what you believe are) their duties, you will be quick to label them as unethical. Your Crisis: Becoming exhausted Unless you develop the practice of mindfulness and reflection, at some point you will become exhausted. No one can meet all of the obligations that your â€Å"Responsible Self† has on your to-do list. If you have few friends, it could be because you are so judgmental that you drive everyone away. Your Seeing Clearly: Listen to your heart To see more clearly, check to see whether your intuition, your heart, agrees with your head. To find balance, explore the gifts of the other lenses – flexibility and a concern for the whole community. As you consider what your duty is, remember that others may see the situation differently or need different supports to fulfill their duties. Also remember to think about the impact of a decision on the whole community. Sometimes an individual actually benefits by restraining autonomy for the good of the community. As you learn to consider the perspectives of others in your decision making process, you will live out the best of your ideals with compassion and care for others.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Who Invented Electronic Cigarettes

Next time you see someone smoking in a nonsmoking area, and you are just about to ask them to put it out, well here is one reason to do a double check first. An electronic cigarette looks almost exactly like a real cigarette, and it is easy to mistake someone using an electronic cigarette for smoking a real cigarette. However, it is a battery operated device that allows one to inhale vaporized nicotine and simulates the experience of smoking a real cigarette. How Electronic Cigarettes Work Unlike a regular cigarette, you dont need matches to smoke an e-cig, they are powered by a rechargeable lithium battery. Hidden inside the e-cig is a chamber that contains miniaturized electronics and an atomizer. The function of the tiny atomizer is to vaporize the liquid nicotine turning it into an aerosol mist, and it is activated by the inhaling action of the user, by taking a puff. The liquid nicotine is hidden inside another refillable chamber that on the outside looks like the filter of a cigarette, where the smoker places their mouth to inhale. When a person smokes an electronic cigarette, they look exactly like they are smoking a tobacco filled cigarette. By inhaling, the smoker pulls the liquid nicotine into the atomizer chamber, the electronics heat the liquid and vaporizes it and passes the vapor on to the smoker. The nicotine vapor enters the smokers lungs, and voila, a nicotine high occurs. The vapor even looks like cigarette smoke. Other features of the e-cig may include an LED light at the end of the cigarette that emulates the flame of burning tobacco. Invention In 1963, Herbert Gilbert patented a smokeless non-tobacco cigarette. In his patent, Gilbert described how his device worked, by replacing burning tobacco and paper with heated, moist, flavored air. Gilberts device involved no nicotine, smokers of Gilberts device enjoyed flavored steam. Attempts to commercialize Gilberts invention failed, and his product fell into obscurity. However, it deserves mention as the earliest patent for an electronic cigarette. Better known is the invention of Chinese pharmacist Hon Lik, who patented the first nicotine based electronic cigarette in 2003. The following year, Hon Lik was the first person to manufacture and sell such a product, first in the Chinese market and then internationally. Are They Safe? Electronic cigarettes are no longer considered a smoking cessation tool as they were once promoted as being. Nicotine is addictive. However, e-cigs do not have the harmful tars that regular commercial cigarettes do contain, but unfortunately, they might have other harmful chemical ingredients included. The toxic substance found in an examination of e-cigs by the FDA included things like diethylene glycol, a toxic chemical used in antifreeze. There is also controversy over how to regulate electronic cigarettes, age restrictions, and if they should or should not be included in smoking bans. Secondhand vapors could be just as bad as secondhand smoke. Some countries have banned the sale and marketing of e-cigs entirely. In September 2010, the FDA issued some warning letters to electronic cigarette distributors for various violations of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act including â€Å"violations of good manufacturing practices, making unsubstantiated drug claims, and using the devices as delivery mechanisms for active pharmaceutical ingredients.† A Booming Business If electronic cigarettes do continue to remain legal in the United States and other countries, there are huge profits to be made. According to Forbes.com manufacturers make between $250 million to $500 million estimated annually and while that is a small portion of the $100 billion US tobacco market, a government survey found that 2.7% of U.S. adults had tried e-cigarettes by 2010, up from 0.6% a year earlier, the kind of statistics that potential trends are made of.

Monday, December 30, 2019

Injustice in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1134 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/02/20 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: To Kill a Mockingbird Essay Did you like this example? Injustice is a matter that a person faces every day. It can be seen in the form of court cases or grounding a child from video games. In the contemporary era, people seldom ever think about the injustice a person goes through with racism. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Injustice in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee" essay for you Create order Nevertheless, society was not always caring, gracious or humble. History especially the US History has proven repetitively that racism can be one of the major â€Å"parents† to social inequality as well as social class. The 1896 Plessy vs. Ferguson case resulted to the sentencing of an African American. Plessy was tried for sitting in a white train cargo just as Rosa Parks was tried for refusing to give up her seat to white man on a bus. The Plessy vs. Ferguson had partially contributed to the creation of the Jim Crow Laws, laws that would doom nightmare to the lives of typical African American. The verdict of the very controversial trial decided due to the fact of Plessy having â€Å"black blood† in his veins. In Harper Lee’s 1960 novel To Kill a Mockingbird, racism alone decides the fate of an innocent black man Tom Robinson. Even in recent times, Duane Buck, a young African American, was convicted to death merely due to the fact that he was of African American origin The following three texts show the injustice that can be caused by racism through social values and social inequality. To Kill a Mockingbird has several parts throughout the book in which the Jim Crow Laws are used indirectly to prove Tom Robinson guilty. Just like Tom Robinson in To Kill a Mockingbird, Plessy a black man was sentenced to jail for sitting in the white only portion of train. The ruling was decided by an all-white jury which had resulted in Plessy losing because of his race. Plessy was called an African American despite being mostly white. Plessy had protested against the Separate Car Act of 1890. The Separate Car Act of 1890 was a law which had segregated public transportation between white people and colored. Plessy was put under custody for sitting in the white cargo of a public train. Despite several pleas to the all white jury, unjust was sown to Plessy and he soon lost his case in thetop notch court of the USA, Supreme Court. Plessy lost the controversial case wholly due to his race (despite being ? black). We can also notice the same type of racial injustice in To Kill a Mockingbird. In To Kill a Mockingbird, Tom Robinson, an African slave is accused of raping a Mayella Ewell, white woman. Tom pledges his innocence to the court yet is cross examined severely by Mr. Gilmer. During the trial Tom Robinson states, â€Å"I felt sorry for her †(Lee 201). Mr. Gilmer immediately responds to Tom’s words by saying harshly, â€Å"You felt sorry for hernobody liked Tom Robinson’s answer†(Lee 201) Tom’s answer of feeling sorry for a white girl had â€Å"demonetized† his case. According to Southern stereotypes or â€Å"rules†, a black person was not supposed to feel sorry or have feelings towards a white person in any way sinc e white people were the dominant and â€Å"supreme† race and therefore had no need of assistance from a shoddy race or in this case the colored. Due to the Jim Crow Laws as well as the social inequalities, it is evident that Tom’s case was ended due to the color of his skin just as how Plessy’s case was doomed because of his race as well. To Kill a Mockingbird and the Buck vs. Davis 1996-2017 case is just another example of how ordinary people or races are often led to injustice because of their skin color. In To Kill a Mockingbird, Atticus gives a speech about the non bias and justice found in no other place except the courtroom. â€Å"in our courts, all men are created equal†(Lee 274). This quote is meant to tell the jury not to base their judgement over a black man on Southern ideals or Jim Crow or bias towards one person over the other. Atticus pleads to the jury that courts should be the definition of justice, with no racial or discrimination bias. Eventually, the jury tries and sentences Tom to life, directly contradicting Atticus’ plea of the courtroom having no sense of bias. Black men during that era had no way to prove themselves innocent to the law against a white person despite being innocent morally as Tom Robinson was. The jury dipped into their Southern thoughts and tried Tom purely on the fact that he was black. The Buck vs. Davis was a court case in 1996 in which Duane Buck, a black man was tried for murder against his girlfriend. Duane was sentenced to death(later on reduced to life in 2017). Duane Buck had several numbers of evidence against him which proved he was guilty, yet a defense â€Å"expert† decided to rub more salt into the wound of the case. Dr. Walter Quijano was a psychologist who provided the false report that â€Å"black people were more likely to commit crimes later in life†. The jury believed this report and thus convicted Buck of murder. On October 3rd, 2017, Buck was sentenced to life in prison with parole eligibility after 40 years plus two concurrent 60 year terms for attempted murder by the Supreme Court. Buck will become eligible for parole in 2035. Los Angeles Times columnist Elizabeth Hinton wrote a quote directly from Duane Buck: â€Å"Basically, because I am black, I need to die.† Buck’s quote and statement proves the idea of racial/social inequality in courts. The reason Buck was tried in the first place was because the jury believed the irrelevant myth of all black people being more dangerous than white people in all situations. Buck, as well as Tom Robinson in To Kill a Mockingbird were both tried due to being black. Society has advanced since the times when black people and other minorities were discriminated numerously because of the â€Å"life ending† Jim Crow Laws. The times when Social Darwinism (the idea that if one race was technologically superior, then their race was also superior) was promoted. Has the perspective of thinking stereotypically about a certain race really changed drastically? The controversial cases such as the trial in the book To Kill a Mockingbird (1930s-1940s) and the recent Buck vs. Davis (1996-2017) show that racism still exists in the â€Å"equal† great America. Social inequality is active even within the places where it should not be such as at jobs or schools. Seeing this slow and possibly never ending process brings the question if injustice caused by social inequality can ever be eradicated. The question I ask to myself is will I always live in a place with i nequalities and be critiqued harshly due to my race?

Sunday, December 22, 2019

The Case Of Hillary Clinton Essay - 748 Words

QUESTION: Did the justice system fail in the case of Hillary Clinton, and allow her to continue to pursue the highest office in the land despite significant evidence pointing to her? After I watched the videos, I researched the people involved and the past cases that are similar to Hillary’s case. Atty. General Lynch held the position as United States Attorney for Eastern District of New York appointed by Former President Clinton in 2001, the same position in 2015 appointed by President Obama, and an Incumbent Attorney General, again appointed by the current administration in 2015. Similarly, FBI Director Comey, held a position as United States Attorney for Southern District of New York appointed by Former President G. W. Bush in 2002, United States Deputy Attorney General appointed by Former President G. W. Bush in 2003, and 7th Director of the FBI appointed by President Obama in 2013. Why did I establish the positions and relations of the personalities involved? I wanted to probe the credibility of the investigation and the recommendation released by the FBI. Certainly there is a relation to the case, for the person involved is affiliated with the people handling the case. Consequently, I have found the case getting more complex. Different agencies and personalities are entangled in the case. The conspiracy keeps on creeping into the scene. Why I say that? First, the timings are quite peculiar. It appears, intentionally or not, to be carelessly planned. If Hillary isShow MoreRelatedHillary Rodham Clinton: Case Study Questions1527 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Hillary Rodham Clinton: Case study Q1. Identify at least one example of each of the types of role conflict (intra-role, inter-role, interpersonal role, and ethic role) as described above. What did Hillary do to solve the situations? 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It is nevertheless worthwhile to mention that it has been nearly two centuriesRead MoreHillary Clinton : The First Woman President Of The United States851 Words   |  4 PagesWhen you hear the name Hillary Clinton the first thing that pops into your head, that she is a woman who is running for presidency and might even win this year in 2016.Which will make her the first woman president of the United States of America. Hillary is not only facing some obstacles with the Republican Party, but as well with the US government who are seeking an indictment to put Hillary behind bars. The US government says that Hillary br oken some regulations, and by breaking those regulationsRead MoreAmerican Politics in Outliers by Malcom Gladwell 1453 Words   |  6 Pagesshort-lived in the face of controversy. In his book Outliers, Malcom Gladwell defines his version of success as his idea of an outlier: a man or women that does things out of the ordinary (Gladwell 17). 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At the end of 2016, Barack Obama will leave the White House and Americans will be faced will big decision of selecting his successor. On the Democratic ticket is former First Lady, Senator and Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton, along with her Vice Presidential running mate, former Virginia senator, Tim Kaine. On the Republican ticket is Businessman and former reality television host, Donald Trump with his pick for Vice President, former governor of Indiana, Mike PenceRead MoreU.s. Secretary Of State1180 Words   |  5 PagesBackground: In 2001 Hillary Clinton was elected into the senate, she then became the first, first lady to ever win a public office seat. And in 2009 she became the 67th U.S. secretary of state, she served until 2013. Now in 2016 she made history by becoming the first woman in U.S. to be a presidential nominee of a major political party. Donald Trump is a billionaire real estate mogul, a business man with no political l and reality television personality. 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Saturday, December 14, 2019

Student Essay Free Essays

In both â€Å"Hard Choices† and â€Å"Initiation into Adulthood† we are giving a look at three different stories, everyone who is approach to adulthood is filled with growing pains, and stretching out of our comfort zones, and the decisions that make us who we are. Each of the Essays looks at them differently. What made one better than the other? We learn that getting and keeping the reader’s attention Is very important. We will write a custom essay sample on Student Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now The author of â€Å"Hard Choices† let us know what we are going to be reading about fast. In the essay â€Å"Hard Choices† we are given a clear Introduction and thesis statement. Telling us that we are looking at an overview of different stories, not Just a story written about children’s choices or their passage to adulthood can help us to understand what we are reading. By letting us know right away what the essay Is looking at makes It easier to read. Furthermore, â€Å"Hard Choices† did a good Job comparing the three stones. Not only holding our attention with clear overviews that were Interesting but also a paragraph at the end comparing them all. Then closing with a conclusion that was short and to the point will help with understanding. In tot essays we get a comparison of the 3 stories in the conclusion, there are still some points that left me looking for clarity, after reading â€Å"Initiation into Adulthood† In the â€Å"Hard Choices† They not only looked at each story it addresses a total comparison taking the comparison further. One weakness that I saw in the essay â€Å"Hard Choices was the way two of the paragraphs started, â€Å"Like† and â€Å"Likewise† are so similar that is almost repetitive. There are other words that could have replaced one of them. Starting each of the paragraphs differently would make for better reading. Although the word choice was great the start of each of the paragraphs was repetitive. On a whole the essay â€Å"Hard Choices was well written and superb at keeping our attention altering the way each paragraph was started would have made it more enjoyable. Looking at â€Å"Initiation into Adulthood† the start was misleading; don’t wait till the thesis statement to let us know the essay is a comparison of stories. When first reading â€Å"Initiation into Adulthood† it appeared as though this paper would be talking about how we all become adults and grow to have our own say in the life e live. This can be miss-leading and loose some reader at that point. Also, being more concise and interesting in your disruptions of each story will help to keep each reader reading, looking for more. We were told what happened in the story but the reader’s attention may or may not be held if they are not a little more Involved. â€Å"Initiation into Adulthood† was written using proper grammar and conveyed the correct Information. Summing it all up, Writing a paper comparing the works of others can be helpful and also hurtful at the same time. The approach best taken loud be one that holds a reader’s attention telling us as we go the highlights and comparisons, Including the good and bad. But then at the end answers any questions that might be out there unanswered and still needing more Information Student Essay By Tweets We learn that getting and keeping the reader’s attention is very important. The the essay â€Å"Hard Choices† we are given a clear introduction and thesis statement. Understand what we are reading. By letting us know right away what the essay is looking at makes it easier to read. Furthermore, â€Å"Hard Choices† did a good Job impairing the three stories. Not only holding our attention with clear overviews that were interesting but also a paragraph at the end comparing them all. Then closing some points that left me looking for clarity, after reading â€Å"Initiation into Adulthood†. Reader’s attention may or may not be held if they are not a little more involved. Correct information. Summing it all up, Writing a paper comparing the works of comparisons, including the good and bad. But then at the end answers any questions that might be out there unanswered and still needing more information How to cite Student Essay, Essays

Friday, December 6, 2019

Hawkesbury Cabinets Pty Ltd

Question: Discuss about the Hawkesbury Cabinets Pty Ltd. Answer: Introduction Production and Operations Management is a part of management in a business that is concerned about the use of input resources, their processing and production of goods and services that are fit for customers (Flynn et al, 1995). This part deals with how the business is running its operations in order for it to meet the customers needs. A production system or process however are the activities that are involved in receiving raw materials and processing them in the exact manner that is defined by the management and customers desires (Westbrook, 1995). These activities are usually organized and are aligned with the customers needs and the businesss objectives and goals (Mentzer et al, 2008). In this essay, I am going to discuss the operational issues that are facing the Hawkesbury Cabinets limited (as stated in the case study). Operational issues are the problems that are involved in the production process, marketing, distribution of products, running of the business and managing the business (Kleindorfer et al, 2005). This essay is going to identify these issues and give a solution to some of them. Hawkesbury Cabinets uses different production processes as stated in the case study. It is the businesss tradition to focus on custom-made cabinets for their customers. They only made the cabinets after receiving an order from their customers with the exact specifics and facts of what the customer wanted in their cabinet. This therefore means that the business used the made to order production process. This where the product is made only after the customer has given his requirements. This method is good because the producer does not know what the customer desires and does not take chances of guesswork and so relies fully on the customers wants and needs. Because of this process, the business began to make good profits, sales increased and it started to become popular in the region. This therefore led to the business being assigned a contract to produce high quality and standardized cabinets for small spec builders. However, the contract required Hawkesbury to make the cabinets in small batches which were designed for one to five kitchen cabinet specifications. This shows that Hawkesbury Cabinets used the batch production process in its operations. This is where by an activity passes through a functional department in form of batches or lots but with each activity having its own different routing (Vidal et al, 1997). In this process, the business may make a batch of a product and then set up the equipment again to be able to make another product of the same characteristics (Kouvelis et al, 2006). This production process has got its advantages and disadvantages. Advantages Plant and the machinery are flexible therefore better utilization. Has low production lead time and cost. Promotes functional and specialization. Low investment in plant and machinery. Satisfaction in jobs and better operations of the business activities. Disadvantages Material handling, production, planning and control becomes complex. High set up costs caused by the frequent changes in equipment and machine set ups. However, the cabinets that were made through this process started becoming important to Hawkesbury Cabinet. They were accounting for 40% of the businesss factory volume and 20% of the sales revenue. This was therefore a big step production improvement for the business. According to the case study, Hawkesbury uses a single manufacturing facility where both the custom and standardized cabinets are made. The custom making equipment is designed to produce a variety of cabinet designs which means that it is highly flexible. The business has grouped the machines, equipment and tools according to their use in different sections of the facility. E.g. the saws and cutting tables in one section and routers and shapers in a different section, painting and finishing is done in a different section to name just but a few sections. This therefore shows that Hawkesbury also uses the mass production process in addition to the two mentioned above. This is where a business focuses on production of large quantities and varieties of goods at a low cost per unit but in the same building and using the same equipment and machines (Thomas et al, 1996). It involves standardization of both the product and process sequence, dedicated special equipment and machines that have high production capacities and output rates, large volumes of products with short time cycle, easy production and planning process as well as automatic material handling. Nevertheless, this process has its limitations and advantages (Slack et al, 2005) Advantages Higher capacity utilization and rate of production with reduced cycle time. Fewer number of skilled employees are required. The inventory process is low. Low production cost per unit. Limitations Breakdown of one machine may stop the entire production process. The line layout needs major and frequent changes according to the product design changes. High investments are required for the production facilities. The use of this process has brought a positive impact to the business. The cabinets that are displayed by the business after completion are therefore able to reflect the craftsmanship of the individual makers as well as the good quality of the raw materials used. However, there was a negative impact in the fact that the standardized and the custom-made cabinets competed for attention from the craftsmen during production. From the information given, Hawkesbury Cabinets increased its sales of the builders cabinets which was caused by the increased line of builders kitchens which led to the management doing more work scheduling to keep up the businesss production rate. However, the custom-made cabinets were given priority because they always gave higher sales and profit margins. This therefore meant that the standardized cabinets were to be set aside without total completion instead were left as work in progress. It is evident that Hawkesbury Cabinets was therefore using job shop production process where most of the products are usually not complete but left as WIP which are contained in different stages of production. This process involves high variety of product but with low volumes, highly skilled employees are required, large material, inputs and tools inventories, good planning is required and use of general purpose machines and equipment (Soteriou, 1999). Advantages A large variety and amounts of products are produced by using the general purpose equipment. Employees skills are well utilized making them more competent and specialized in their jobs. Limitations There is a large space to be required. Production planning is complicated. This process brought about increased growth of the business in general, custom kitchen cabinets sale remained strong and that of the builders increased rapidly. Nevertheless, this process caused more negative impacts, like: decrease in profit margins, high costs related to builders cabinets, increased capital being tied up in raw materials inventory, WIP and finished product, lack of enough space for work and for expansion among other problems that were caused. This led to the businesss decision to hire or rent the nearby warehouse space so that it can accommodate the business operations and products. Conclusion In conclusion, I can say that Hawkesbury Cabinets uses some of the best production processes that are effective for such a business. However, in relation to job shop product production process, it has some work to do because it has led to the most number of negative impacts in its operations (Voss et al, 2002). Otherwise, the business will do well without the job shop production process. References Flynn, Barbara B., Roger G. Schroeder, and Sadao Sakakibara. "The impact of quality management practices on performance and competitive advantage."Decision sciences26, no. 5 (1995): 659-691. Kleindorfer, P.R., Singhal, K. and Wassenhove, L.N., 2005. Sustainable operations management.Production and operations management,14(4), pp.482-492. Kouvelis, P., Chambers, C. and Wang, H., 2006. Supply chain management research and production and operations management: Review, trends, and opportunities.Production and Operations Management,15(3), pp.449-469. Mentzer, J.T., Stank, T.P. and Esper, T.L., 2008. Supply chain management and its relationship to logistics, marketing, production, and operations management.Journal of Business Logistics,29(1), pp.31-46. Slack, N. and Lewis, M. eds., 2005.Operations management(Vol. 10). Psychology Press. Soteriou, A.C., Hadjinicola, G.C. and Patsia, K., 1999. Assessing production and operations management related journals: the European perspective.Journal of Operations Management,17(2), pp.225-238. Thomas, Douglas J., and Paul M. Griffin. "Coordinated supply chain management."European journal of operational research94, no. 1 (1996): 1-15. Vidal, Carlos J., and Marc Goetschalckx. "Strategic production-distribution models: A critical review with emphasis on global supply chain models."European Journal of Operational Research98, no. 1 (1997): 1-18. Vidal, C., Tsikriktsis, N. and Frohlich, M., 2002. Case research in operations management.International journal of operations production management, 22 (2), pp.195-219. Westbrook, R., 1995. Action research: a new paradigm for research in production and operations management.International Journal of Operations Production Management,15(12), pp.6-20.

Friday, November 29, 2019

American Comedy Through Out the Decades Essays

American Comedy Through Out the Decades Essays American Comedy Through Out the Decades Essay American Comedy Through Out the Decades Essay American Comedy Throughout the Decades American comedy films are one of the oldest genres in which the main point is purely focused on humor. From silent films of the early 1920s to modern classics such as The Hangover, American comedies have transformed though out the years. American comedies became popular as a way of escape from reality in the 1920s. It was a way to bring out humor and laughter from the audience watching these films. American comedies would take serious social issues like racial and ethnic issues, immigrants, male and female relationships and differences in social and economic class and use these issues as their material for comedies. American comedies used their exaggeration of situations to amuse the audience. There are many different types of American comedies and they have changed dramatically though out the years. The silent film era was a massive part of the history of American comedies. Silent films took silent comedians and used their exaggerations of body language and humorous story lines and transformed them into stories to amuse the audience. The two most predominate actors in the silent film era were Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton. With the introduction of slapstick comedy, where use of physical comedy involving exaggerated, energetic actions, violence, and activities which may exceed the boundaries of common sense, actors such as Chapin and Keaton rose to the top of the entertainment industry. Movies like â€Å"The General† by Buster Keaton, allowed for a different element of comedy. Instead of Keaton always interacting with a human costar he would have relationships with machines, which lead to a more interactive experience because he would play off of the machine and it would engage the audience even more. â€Å"More often then not, Keaton’s comic costar was a machine†¦Keaton’s Relationships with machines often proved more harmonious than those with human costars†¦Ã¢â‚¬  described John Belton, author of American Cinema American Culture. Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton mastered the art of slapstick comedy by transforming it into a form of self-expression. One movie that brought back the nostalgia of silent movies was The Artist, which was a silent film that came out in 2011. The Artist took a modern approach on a silent film, which included some slapstick comedy, and you can clearly see the inspiration from Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton. When sound was introduced into movies there was quite a transformation. Screwball comedy grew as the sound in movies became more obtainable. Screwball comedies took the idea of slapstick comedies but incorporated verbal word play in it. Comedies such as â€Å"Some like it Hot†, with marilyn monroe, took the idea of using exaggerated body language and incorporated verbal word play so the audience could engaged in a deeper story line. In â€Å"Some like it Hot† by Billy Wilder, Jack Lemmon and Tony Curtis dress up as women in a band to escape the mob who is looking for them. While they are dressed up as women they are constantly getting involved in crazy situations where they have to escape in minutes or they had to hide their real identity from Sugar, played by Marilyn Monroe. While they were involved in these scenes they had to use their body language as well as their witty verbal wordplay and by doing this the audience was able to connect to these characters. Movies like Role Models (2008) use the idea of screwball comedy there is an extreme amount of dialogue and verbal wit in movies like Role Models but when they incorporate the verbal wit with their â€Å"slapstick† comedy the result is a modern age screwball comedy that everyone enjoys. As American comedies progressed so did the sub-genres with films like slapstick comedies as well as screwball comedies it gave actors and writers to expand their talents. In the late 1930s and early 1940s romantic comedies played a big role in the expansion of American comedies. â€Å"Romantic comedies, in which the central dramatic action involved the comic (as opposed to melodramatic) vicissitudes of heterosexual love affair and that had been a staple of the silent screen, enjoyed a new lease on life in films that combined romance with the comedy of manners,† explained John Belton. Movies such as â€Å"Some like it Hot,† and â€Å"The Awful Truth† combined screwball comedy with romantic comedy. They would use elements of screwball comedy but would mix it with the drama of a romantic relationship. For example, in Leo McCareys’ â€Å"The Awful Truth†, Cary Grant and Irene Dunn play a married couple that is getting a divorce but as each person tries to move on to a new relationship the other person finds a way to mess things up. For example, when Lucy, played by Irene Dunn, starts dating a new man Cary Grants’ character finds humorous ways to mess up her new relationship. Romantic comedies sometimes incorporate screwball comedy into it to give the movie a more upbeat tone. The basic plot of a romantic comedy was that two protagonists, usually a man and a woman, meet, part ways due to an argument or other obstacle, then ultimately reunite. This basic plot is still used today in many movies. Movies like the Wedding Singer, Serendipity, and Never Been Kissed all use this basic plot. Overall, the development of American Comedy has progress tremendously throughout the years. From Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton’s slapstick comedy to Cary Grant and Irene Dunn’s romantic comedy there is always a form of comedy though out the years. With out Chaplin and Keaton there would not be such a vast history behind the idea of American Comedy. Even though these American Comedies touched on serious social issues, they brought humor to people who really needed it. One of the most important things about the classic American Comedies was the fact that it gave people an escape when they desperately needed it. Even though American comedy films have a long and important history the reason why comedies are so popular has not changed since film was invented. American comedies bring happiness to people and for this reason everyone loves comedies and I am sure that this love will remain till the end of time. Belton, John. American Comedy. American cinema/American culture. Third ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994. 164-194. Print.